Honda D engine

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D16Z6 Engine Lightly Customized.
JDM D15B VTEC Swap into US-market 1988 CRX DX (slightly modified).

The Honda D engine is a family of inline 4-cylinder engines used in a variety of compact Honda models, most commonly the Honda Civic, CRX, Logo, Stream, and first-generation Integra. Its displacement ranges between 1.2 and 1.7 liters and is available in SOHC and DOHC versions; with some SOHC models equipped with VTEC. Power range started from Template:Convert/hp to Template:Convert/hp. The D-series was introduced in 1984 and ended production in 2005 with the introduction of the 8th generation Honda Civic.


Although the availability of used D-series engines at low prices makes it somewhat popular among those who modify it for high performance (as well as a popular item for swapping into earlier or less powerful Civics for an instant and trouble free power upgrade), the unmodified engine won't survive quite as much power enhancement by use of such external modifications as turbochargers, superchargers, or nitrous oxide as the more powerful, somewhat more robust, and more expensive B-series in the Integra.

The Achilles heel of the D-series seems to be its connecting rods, which will withstand a power increase up to a certain point but will break if that limit is exceeded. Generally, a D-series motor can handle up to about Template:Convert/bhp, as long as care is taken to avoid detonation through careful spark and fuel management. Of course, the connecting rods, pistons, and other internal parts can be replaced with more durable after-market parts that can handle more power, but many choose to swap to a B-series motor to avoid the potential risks of engine building. The B-series is more expensive to swap in than most D-series engine builds with forced induction or nitrous combined. The D-series also has the ability to swap some parts between different motors and some B-series parts as well. When employing forced induction on a D16, at a minimum the stock hypereutectic pistons should be replaced as well as the connecting rods if the commonly used "stock parts" limit of Template:Convert/hp is to be exceeded, although the D series crankshaft in particular has been found to reliably handle up to Template:Convert/hp.

High compression OEM pistons are a quick way to gain power in a naturally aspirated motor. All D-series motors run the same bore (75 mm), however most factory motor variations (i.e. D16A1, D15B7, D16Y7) have used a different piston compression height as well as a different dome or dish. In general, the older D motors have a higher compression height and a larger combustion chamber which create around a 9.1:1 - 9.4:1 compression ratio from the factory. The newer variants have slightly lower compression height combined with a much smaller combustion chamber to create a compression ratio of 9.4:1 - 9.9:1. If you combine an older D16 motor's piston with that of a newer D16 head you can end up with a compression ratio of about 10.7:1 with no other work (i.e. D16A1 piston, D16A6 head). There are a few websites that have compression ratio calculators for Honda motors.

  • D16 and D17 cranks share the same size main bearing diameters.
  • D16 and D17 rods all have the same major dimensions. The D15 rod is shorter (in general) and has a smaller bearing size, although the wrist pin bore is the same.
  • D15Z1 and D15B motors have a rod that is the same length as a D16. Other than the rod length, the rest of the bottom end is D15 spec (i.e. rod and crank bearings). D15B has D16 sized rod journals. D15B uses the same p28 rods that the D16z6 does. All other D15s have smaller rod journals.
  • The B18A/B Rod has the same bearing bore as a D16. It is 0.044" wider, so the sides of the "big end" of the rod have to be shaved down for use in a D16/17. The wrist pin bore is larger so a conventional D15/16/17 piston can only be used if the stock "small end" bushing in the rod is replaced with one of the proper size. These affordable rods are generally considered to be able to handle up to Template:Convert/hp.
  • There is a D16 motor that runs on compressed natural gas (96-98 Civic GX). The pistons from that motor have a 12.5:1 CR. The wrist pin bore in the 98-00 D16B5 is 21 mm, like the B18B rod. D17A7 01-05 Civic GX uses 19 mm wrist pins.
  • Interestingly enough, the Suzuki Vitara has a 75 mm bore as well, so engine builders have occasionally used these pistons in the D16 motor. These pistons are commonly referred to as Vitaras, and they provide an 8.5:1 compression ratio, and thicker ring lands. Lowering the stock compression ratio lowers compression heat, which raises the detonation threshold and is useful when employing forced induction. There have been reports of over Template:Convert/hp to the front wheels utilizing these.


One of the most popular and effective methods of achieving greater power from a D-series motor is replacing the cylinder head with one from a more powerful D-series motor. This is usually done between D16A6 and D16Z6 or D16Y7 and D16Y8 engines, however, can be performed in other combinations as well; such as a D16Z6 head on a D16Y7 or D15B2/B7 block. The Z6 and Y8 heads are VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) equipped, and increase power significantly over stock levels. This operation is known as a "Mini Me" or partial swap. Mini Me's are popular because they offer a substantial performance upgrade by adding VTEC to the motor at a relatively low cost. Simply adding a VTEC head to a non-VTEC block will not increase power alone. This is because the VTEC circuit must be activated and accompanied by a new 'high cam' fuel map from the car's ECU, or by swapping-in the ECU for the swapped head (ex D16Y7/Y8 mini-me: P2E computer to P2P).

Engine Specs

D12 Series Engines (1.2 Litre)


  • Found in:

there are some locally distributed units that start with JHM, these are the 1,200 cc (Template:Convert/CID) EF sold in 1991. all 1000+ units were imported from Japan (SKD)

D13 Series Engines (1.3 Litre)


  • Found in:
    • 1988-1991 Honda Civic DX (European Market)



  • Found in:


  • Found in:
    • 1998-2001 Honda Logo 5D
      • Displacement :
      • Bore and Stroke :
      • Compression :
      • Power, Torque :
      • Valvetrain : sohc
      • Fuel Control : Multi-point fuel Injection, PGM-FI


  • Found in:
    • 1989-1994 Honda City CE, CE Fit, CE Select, CG, CR-i, CR-i limited, CZ-i, New Fit (Japanese Market)
      • Displacement : 1.3L
      • Bore and Stroke :
      • Compression : 10 to 1
      • Power, Torque :
      • Valvetrain : sohc
      • Fuel Control : mpfi

D14 Series Engines (1.4 Litre)


  • Found in:
    • 1987-1991 Honda Civic GL and 1990 CRX (European Market)


  • Found in:
    • 1995-1996 Honda Civic MA8 (European Market)


  • Found in:
    • 1996-1999 Honda Civic EJ9 (European Market)
      • Displacement : 1,396 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Compression : 9.1:1
      • Power : 75 hp (civic i) and 90hp (civic is)
      • Valvetrain : SOHC non VTEC 16v
      • Redline : 7200 rpm
      • Fuel Control : Multi-point fuel Injection (PGM-FI)
      • Transmission: S40


  • Found in:
    • 1996-2000 Honda Civic EJ9 (European Market)

The D14A3 and D14A4 engines are identical, the difference is found in the valves, this is the reason the D14A4 produces Template:Convert/hp more then the D14A3 (Author is wrong, actually there is no difference between d14a3 and d14a4 in mechanicall parts, there is only one small gasket under trottle body in d14a3.)

D15 Series Engines (1.5 Liters)


The JDM spec engine model of one of the EW series motors, used in later years of the third-gen Civic.



  • VTEC
  • Found in:
    • 1991-1999 Honda Civic VTi EG4 (Japanese Market)
    • 1992-1998 Honda CRX VXi EG1 (Japanese Market)
      • Displacement : 1,493 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Rod Length : 137 mm
      • Compression : 9.6:1
      • Power : 130 hp (128 ps) @ 6800 rpm & 115.9 ft·lbs (14.1kg/m) @ 5200 rpm
      • Redline : 7200 rpm
      • Fuel Cut : 7411 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC VTEC
      • Head Code : P08
      • Piston Code: P08-010
      • Fuel Control : OBD-1 MPFI

D15B (D15Z7) (with 3 stage VTEC)


(Same as the D15B2 engine, but with a mild camshaft, and a restrictor plate between the throttle body and intake manifold)


  • Found in:
    • 1988-1991 Honda Civic GL/DX/LX
    • 1988-1991 Honda CRX DX
    • 1992-1995 Honda Civic LSi Hatch/Saloon (European Market)
    • 1990-1995 Honda Concerto (European Market)
      • Displacement : 1,493 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Rod Length : 134 mm
      • Compression : 9.2:1
      • Power : Template:Convert/hp @ 6000 rpm & 119 Nm @ 4500 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC (4 valves per cylinder)
      • Cam Gear : 38 tooth
      • Piston Code : PM3
      • Fuel Control : PGM-FI Dual Point (OBD0)
      • Redline : 6500 rpm (6000 rpm honda concerto) 7200 rpm rev limiter


  • Found in:
    • 1988-1989\ Honda Civic EX
    • 1988-1995 Honda Civic Shuttle GL
    • 1992-1995 Honda Civic LX (NZ model)
    • 1988-1991 Honda Civic LX (NZ model)








  • VTEC
  • Found in:
    • 1995-2000 Honda Civic 1.5 iLS (European Market)


  • 3-stage VTEC
  • Found in:
    • 1996-1999 Honda Civic VTi EK3 and Ferio Vi
      • Displacement : 1,493 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Rod Length : 137 mm
      • Compression : 9.6:1
      • Power : 128 hp (130 ps) @ 7000 rpm & 102 ft·lbf (14.2kg/m) @ 5300 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC VTEC
      • Fuel Control : OBD-2 MPFI
      • ECU Code : P2J


  • VTEC-E
  • Found in:
    • 1997-2000 Honda Civic LS (European Market)
      • Displacement : 1,493 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Compression : 9.6:1
      • Power : 84 kW (114 hp) @ 6500 rpm
      • Torque : 134 Nm (95 ft·lbf) @ 4500 rpm
      • Head Code : P2J
      • ECU Code : P2P
      • VTEC Switchover : 2500 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC VTEC-E (4 valves per cylinder)
      • Fuel Control : OBD2 MPFI

D16 Series Engines (1.6 Liters)





Also known as D16Z2.

  • Found in:
    • 1988-1991 Honda Civic Si, CRX Si, Civic Wagon RT4WD
    • 1990-1991 Honda Civic EX Sedan
    • 1988-1995 Honda Civic Shuttle RT4WD (UK/Europe/Asia/AU/NZ)
    • 1989-1996 Rover 216/416 GSi/Tourer (UK/Europe)

Λeo====D16A7==== Basically a D16A6 that came without a catalytic converter, like the European version of the D16A6.ex US 4 Door



(Same as D16A8 but without a catalytic converter)

  • Found in:
    • 1988-1991 Concerto (UK/Europe)
    • 1988-1991 CRX 1.6i-16(UK/Europe/South Africa)
    • 1988-1991 Civic 1.6i-16(UK/Europe/South Africa)
    • 1989-1992 Rover 216/416 GTi (UK/Europe)
    • 1992-1995 Civic Si (Peruvian version)

96 kW


(Identical to the D16Y5. Main differences are Pistons, Rods, Camshaft, Head Gasket, Intake Manifold, and Exhaust Manifold are PDN rather than P2M)

  • Found in:
    • 1998-2000 Honda Civic GX


  • Vtec-E
  • Found in:
    • 2005-2007 Honda Civic Vti-L/ Vti (Asia)
      • Displacement:1,590 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Compression : 10.9:1
      • Power : 115hp 5600 rpm & 152Nm 4300 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC
      • Redline 6100 rpm
      • Limit 6200 rpm
      • Fuel Control : OBD-1 MPFI
      • ECU Code: PM12
  • Also found in 2001-2005 Honda Civic (Europe)
    • Same as above, except:
    • Power: 110hp (81kW) @ 5600 rpm & 152 Nm @ 4300 rpm
    • Redline 6100 rpm
    • Limit 6200 rpm



  • Found in:
    • 1996-2000 EK1 Civic CXi,GL,GLi (New Zealand,Australia)
    • 1998 EK4 Civic ES (Turkey)



  • Found in:
    • 1996-2000 Honda Civic DX/VP/LX/CX
    • 1999-2000 Honda Civic Special Edition - SE(Canada)
    • 1996-97 Honda del Sol S
    • 1997 Honda Civic Coupe LSI



Also available in New Zealand under the code D16Y6

  • Found in
    • 1999-2000 Honda Civic SE 1.6 Vtec (UK)
    • 1997-1998 Honda Civic EX Sedan
    • 1996-1998 Honda Civic EX Coupe
    • 1996-2000 Honda Civic EX (US)
    • 1996-2000 Honda Civic SI (Canada Only)
    • 1997-2000 Acura 1.6EL (Canada Only)
    • 1996-1997 Honda del Sol Si
      • Displacement : 1,590 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • Bore and Stroke : Template:Convert/Dual/LoffAonDbSoff
      • Rod Length : 137 mm
      • Compression : 9.6:1
      • Valvetrain: SOHC VTEC
      • 127 hp@6600 rpm
      • 102ft·lbf (144 Nm)@5500 rp
      • Head Code : P2J
      • Piston Code : P2P
      • Redline 6900 rpm
      • ECU Code : P2P


non vtec

                     Mt Template:Convert/hp @ 5500 rpm
      • Valvetrain : SOHC, 4 valves per cylinder non - VTEC
      • Fuel Control : OBD2A MPFI

ecu p2k 2 connectors


(Basically the same engine as the D16A9, but now with a catalytic converter and lambda sensor)



D17 Series Engines (1.7 Liters)

    • D17A 2001-2005 (Japan) honda civic
      • Displacement : 1,668 cc (Template:Convert/CID)
      • bore and stroke: n/a
      • valve train : Sohc Vtec
      • power: Template:Convert/hp,lean burn,130 hp
      • please find more info, there is also a D15B Vtec from this family with coils





ZC(similar to D15Z4, D16Z6, D16A1, D16A3, D16A6, D16A8, D16A9 and D16Z5 engines)

A few D-series variants are labelled "ZC" (usually JDM), but they are not truly a different series.

There are both SOHC and DOHC ZC engines.

The non-VTEC SOHC ZC is similar to the D15Z4 and D16A6 engine, but with more aggressive cam timing.

The VTEC SOHC ZC is identical to the D16Z6, and the DOHC ZC is similar to the D16A1, D16A3, D16A8, D16A9 and D16Z5 engines.


 *Found in 1988-91 (JDM) Crx si
   * Displacement : 1590 cm³
   * Bore and Stroke : 75 mm X 90 mm
   * 1986-1987 Compression : 9.3:1 1988-1989 Compression : 9.5: 1 
   * 1986-1987 Power : Template:Convert/hp @ 6250 rpm Torque : Template:Convert/ft.lbf @ 5500rpm (US)
   * 1988-1989 Power : Template:Convert/hp @ 6250 rpm Torque: Template:Convert/ft.lbf @ 5500rpm (US)
   * 1988-1991 Power : Template:Convert/bhp @ 6800 rpm Torque : 106 @ 5700 (JDM)
   * Valvetrain : DOHC
   * Piston Code 1986-87 : PG6
   * Piston Code 1988-89 : PM7
   * Fuel Control : OBD-0 MPFI

Euro Mk1 (85-87) 1.6 CRX's are fitted with an engine designated "ZC1" which is a higher spec Template:Convert/bhp version of the D16a1. Which were later to be switched out with the D16A8 or B16A depending on which model.

    • 1st Gen ZC

Identified by: External coil, small dizzy, dual butterfly TB, cam cover bolts on top, brown/gold cam cover. Large cam pullys. +3cc PG6B pistons, non-pent roof combustion chamber. As a ZC it appeared in JDM AV integra Si and JDM E-AT civic/crx Si. Commonly produced at the time but now over 20 years old and getting harder to find. D-series version D16a1 86-87

    • 2nd Gen ZC (rarest)

Identified by: Internal coil, large dizzy, single butterfly TB mounted on slight angle forward, bolts on top of cam cover, black cam cover, large cam pullies. +7cc PM7 pistons, 43 cc Pent roof combustion chamber. As a ZC appeared in JDM facelift AV bodied integra Si did not appear in civic or CRX, rarest ZC only produced for less than one year. D-series version D16a1 88 - 89 (sometimes +7cc P29 pistons)

    • 3rd Gen ZC

Identified by: Internal coil, large dizzy, single butterfly TB. Black cam cover. Cam cover bolts on the sides. Small cam pullies. Inlet Manifold stamped PM7. +7cc PM7 pistons, 43 cc Pent roof combustion chamber. As a ZC appeared in JDM EF3 civic and EF7 crx, did not appear in an integra body. Most commonly produced ZC, manufactured in Japan from end of 87 through to early '91 D-series version D16a8/9 (euro civic Si) (sometimes +7cc P29 pistons)

    • 4th Gen ZC

Identified by: Internal coil. OBD1 efi system (grey plug). No cam angle sensor on exhaust cam, now located in Dizzy. Rubber plug where cam angle sensor would mount. Black cam cover. No PGM-EFi plate on the inlet manifold, replaced with three ribs instead. P29 stamped on inlet manifold. MAP sensor on TB. +7cc PM7 pistons, pent roof combustion chamber. As a ZC only appeared in EG5 civic bodies, no integra or CRX received this engine. Reasonably common produced from 92 to 94. (20th Anniversary edition & Japanese car of the year) D-series version D16a8/9 (Euro & Australia civic Si & NZ civic Gti) (sometimes +7cc P29 pistons)

More info on the DOHC ZC go to


External links